UN Climate Negotiations 2019

Madrid, Spain, December 2-13, 2019

© Florian Wehde on Unsplash


At COP 25, representatives from 197 countries will seek to complete the Paris Agreement “rulebook” at a moment of great urgency.


UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

Learn more about this session on the UNFCCC website »

The Conference of the Parties (COP) refers to the annual meeting of the member countries of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This year’s COP in Madrid is the 25th annual meeting to advance on Parties’ shared objectives of tackling climate change.

Countries need to finalize outstanding rules for market and non-market cooperation to achieve global climate goals and advance discussions related to agriculture and inclusive participation of indigenous peoples and local communities in climate negotiations.

The decisions on markets will complete the Paris Agreement “rulebook,” which includes implementation guidance for countries related to mitigation, adaptation, finance mechanisms, reporting, tracking progress and capacity building. Parties should use this negotiating session to develop long-term post-2020 commitments and signal intent to increase global climate action to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement.

Harnessing the full potential of nature to mitigate and help people adapt to climate change is critical to the success of the Paris Agreement.


Our approach

Conserving nature is critical to achieving the Paris Agreement goals. Protecting, sustainably managing and restoring forests and natural ecosystems can provide at least 30 percent of the mitigation needed to limit average global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius. These natural climate solutions must be part of our response to climate change, along with accelerating a decarbonization pathway.

Natural climate solutions include activities that reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), conserve and restore marine ecosystems, enhance “blue” carbon stocks along coastlines, and harness the power of ecosystems to adapt to climate change (ecosystem-based adaptation). These actions can additionally provide socio-economic benefits beyond mitigation and adaptation and are critical to accelerating our climate change response.

As stewards of lands that contain almost a quarter of the world’s land-based carbon, indigenous peoples and local communities are on the front lines of climate change. To recognize the importance of these stakeholders, Conservation International works to connect indigenous peoples and local communities to funding, training and technology, helping to secure their land rights so that protecting nature also protects their livelihoods.

© Jeff Yonover

2019 is an important year for countries to review and increase their nationally determined contributions (NDCs) — the national climate goals that each country set for achieving the Paris Agreement — before they begin implementation post-2020.

Natural climate solutions, essential for achieving the goals of Paris, must be implemented as part of countries’ NDCs.


Our policy objectives for COP 25

Press contact

Kipp Lanham, Media Relations Manager

See our latest news and press releases at conservation.org/newsroom.

Conservation International works to equip decision-makers with accessible policy-relevant science to restore and protect critical ecosystems as part of global climate action.

At COP 25, Conservation International will strive to advance the role of nature in implementing the Paris Agreement by calling on countries to:

Increase efficiency for delivering climate goals and finance through market mechanisms

  • Parties should facilitate the generation and robust accounting of emission reduction transfers across all sectors and enhance the potential for removals by sinks.
  • Any emissions reductions transferred from sectors or gases that are not covered in the scope of a country’s NDC should demonstrate robust baselines, monitoring, reporting and verification, and be subject to a corresponding adjustment.
  • Parties should prepare guidance to facilitate the trading of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes by Party and non-Party actors (such as airlines under the International Civil Aviation Organization’s market-based measure) in a way that ensures the avoidance of double counting.

Ensuring inclusive participation

  • Ensure the full and inclusive participation of all relevant actors, such as smallholders, women, indigenous peoples and local communities in climate policy and action, whose involvement is key to achieving global goals

Consider critical issues under the Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture (KJWA)

  • Prioritize the inclusion of smallholder farmers in national planning efforts to incentivize the protection of forest cover and ensure food security through diversified, sustainable landscapes
  • Link the KJWA workshop discussions with national-level policies and interventions that may be integrated into countries’ NDC revisions, including an explanation of the technical and financial support needed. National institutions, processes and plans are necessary to integrate land use planning, sustainable landscapes, farming communities and food security safeguards into a resilient food system in the context of climate change.
  • Advance consideration of safeguards as a future topic for discussion, in particular, to prioritize and ensure the full and inclusive involvement of key actors, such as smallholder farmers and indigenous peoples and local communities, who are crucial to protecting forest cover and ensuring food security in a changing climate


Turning science into policy

There is a natural solution to the climate breakdown: protecting forests. Climate activist Greta Thunberg and writer and climate activist George Monbiot explain. Learn more at www.conservation.org/naturenow This independent film was made possible with support from Conservation International, Gower St., The Food and Land Use Coalition and guidance from Nature4Climate and Natural Climate Solutions. Narrated by Greta Thunberg & George Monboit Directed by Tom Mustill Producer: Andrea Walji DOP & Offline Editor: Fergus Dingle Sound Recordist: Ewan Dryburgh Motion Graphics: Páraic Mc Gloughlin Sound Designer & Audio Post: Tom Martin for Mcasso Online Editor & Picture Post: Bram De Jonghe for Special Treats Productions NCS Guidance: Charlotte Latimer Music: Rone - "Motion" with kind permission of the artist InFiné & Warner Chappell Music A Gripping Films Production

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