In December 2022, 196 countries gathered in Montreal, Canada for the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP 15) to agree on new global goals on biodiversity in a framework that will be implemented over the next decade, with the objective of promoting a healthy planet and human well-being.
United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity
The Conference of the Parties (COP) refers to the annual meeting of the member countries of the 1993 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The COP meets every 2 years to discuss and advance the implementation of the Convention.
This framework, the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) includes an ambitious new set of global biodiversity Goals and Targets, monitoring framework, strategy for resource mobilization and a mechanism for implementation.
Replacing and updating the previous global strategic plan for biodiversity created in 2010 (the Aichi Biodiversity Targets), the GBF is the Paris Agreement for biodiversity, setting the direction and ambition for global biodiversity action and funding for the next decade.
After four years of effort, including substantial COVID-19-related delays, the GBF was successfully agreed under the leadership of the COP Presidency, held by the Government of China.
WHY THE WORLD NEEDS BIODIVERSITY ACTION
Nature is declining globally at rates unprecedented in human history, with 1 million animal and plant species currently threatened with extinction by 2030. Transformation change is needed to avoid emptying nature’s bank of resources, depriving future generations of the resources that they need and pushing us to irreversible tipping points, worsening the food and energy crises.
Through the GBF, countries are now committed to ambition actions commensurate with the scale of this biodiversity crisis. The goals and targets set the trajectory for creating the transformational change needed to ensure that biodiversity loss is halted and reversed by 2030.
WHAT’S IN THE GBF?
The GBF was agreed as a package, the components of which are detailed below.
- 4 Global Goals: Four long-term outcome-oriented Goals towards achievement of the 2050 Vision for Biodiversity
- 23 Targets: 23 action-oriented Targets for urgent action over the decade to 2030, which together, will enable achievement of 2050 goals
- Resource Mobilization: Special Trust Fund for biodiversity, agreement for countries to create national finance plans, development of the first phase of a Resource Mobilization strategy (2023-2024)
- Monitoring Framework: High-level ‘headline indicators” to capture the overall scope of the Goals and Targets and ad-hoc technical advisory group established to refine the monitoring framework prior to COP16
- Implementation Mechanism: Guidance and timeline for updating/revising National biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAPs) by COP16 (2024), and national reports in 2026 and 2029
- Digital sequence information: Multilateral fund for the equitable sharing of benefits from digital sequence information on genetic resources, to be finalized at COP16 in 2024
The final agreement reflects many of Conservation International’s policy objectives including:
- “Nature Positive”: The 2030 Mission integrates the definition of Nature Positive, to “halt and reverse biodiversity loss”.
- Nature’s Contributions to People: There are targets focused on nature-based solutions for climate (Target 8) and for air, water, food, and disaster reduction (Target 11).
- Sufficient financing: the GBF aims to close the $700B/year funding gap, including the reform of up to $500B/yr in harmful subsidies (Target 18), mobilizing $200B/yr for biodiversity, with at least $30B/yr of that flowing from developed to developing countries by 2030 (Target 19.1), and establishing a new Trust Fund under the Global Environment Facility dedicated to financing achievement of the GBF and able to accept private sector funds.
- 30x30: Target 3 enshrining 30% protection and conservation by 2030 was adopted, with focus on areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services and respect for IPLC rights.
- Pandemic prevention: Minimizing the risk of pandemic spillover is included in Target 5 of the GBF.
Pivoting to implementation — Conservation International has developed the following brief to foster understanding of the GBF and its components and present the Framework as an opportunity to advance priorities through the policy process of updating National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs):
CI'S INPUTS TO THE POST-2020 GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY FRAMEWORK
Conservation International aims to drive the conversation around the importance of nature’s contribution to people in the GBF throughout the negotiation process and beyond through the following position papers and briefs:
- Conservation International SBSTTA25 Policy Recommendations | Español | Français (September 2023)
- Conservation International COP15 Policy Recommendations | Español | Français (September 2022)
- Conservation International Nairobi Policy Recommendations | Español | Français (May 2022)
- Conservation International’s Policy Recommendations for the First Draft of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework | Español | Français (March 2022)
- Biodiversity and Irrecoverable Carbon in the GBF (November 2021)
- 2021 Policy Brief: Nature’s Contributions to People in the GBF (August 2021)
- Position Paper: Policy Recommendations on the Updated Zero Draft of the Global Biodiversity Framework (April 2021)
- Discussion Paper: Nature’s Contributions to People and the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework | Español (March 2021)
- Conservation International's 2OEWG Position Paper (February 2020)
- Conservation International's Submission on Indicators for the Post-2020 Goals and Targets (February 2020)
- Submission on the Review of Draft Monitoring Framework for the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (July 2020)