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Mangroves:
11 facts you need to know

These unique trees lead tough lives — but we’re all the better for it.

What are mangroves? Mangroves are tropical trees that thrive in conditions most timber could never tolerate — salty, coastal waters, and the interminable ebb and flow of the tide. With the ability to store vast amounts of carbon, mangrove forests are key weapons in the fight against climate change, but they are under threat worldwide. By protecting mangroves, we can help protect the future of our planet.

Share these facts about mangroves and help make a difference.

  1. Mangroves in Cambodia. © CI/David Emmett

    Mangroves can be a bit salty.
    Mangroves are the only species of trees in the world that can tolerate saltwater. Their strategy for dealing with otherwise toxic levels of salt? Excrete it through their waxy leaves.


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  2. Mangroves in Liberia. © Trond Larsen

    Mangroves come in a variety of sizes.
    Though estimates vary, there are at least 50 — and maybe up to 110 — mangrove species, ranging in height from 2 to 10 meters, but all species feature oblong or oval-shaped leaves and share an affinity for brackish habitats.


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  3. A young lemon shark hunts in a mangrove forest. © Matthew D. Potenski 2011/Marine Photobank

    Fish flock to mangroves.
    Mangroves, specifically the underwater habitat their roots provide, offer critical nursing environments for juveniles of thousands of fish species, from 1-inch gobies to 10-foot sharks.


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  4. Mangroves in Mozambique. © bartolomeo/Flickr

    Mangroves live on the edge.
    Mangrove forests can be found on the saltwater coasts of 118 tropical and subtropical countries, totalling over 137,000 square kilometers — roughly the size of Greece or Arkansas.


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  5. A large mangrove forest. © Kyle Obermann

    Indonesia tops the worldwide list.
    The largest amount of mangrove coverage can be found in Indonesia, where mangrove trees cover some 23,000 square kilometers — that’s more than twice the size of Jamaica or roughly​ the size of Vermont.


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      1. Red Mangrove displaying impressive arching root system. © Jeff Yonover

        Florida mangroves prefer the southern coast.
        The United States has roughly 2,500 square kilometers of mangroves — an area about 40% smaller than Rhode Island — located almost entirely in southern Florida.


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      2. Aerial view of mangroves in the Grand Cayman islands. © CI/Russell A. Mittermeier

        Mangroves have (carbon) hoarding issues.
        Blue carbon ecosystems (mangroves, sea grasses, and salt marshes) can be up to 10 times more efficient than terrestrial ecosystems at absorbing and storing carbon long term, making them​ a critical solution in the fight against climate change.


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      3. A dense system of mangrove roots in Liberia. © Trond Larsen

        Mangroves can help keep people safe.
        Mangrove forests — and the thick, impenetrable tangle their above- and below-water roots create — are vital to shoreline communities as natural buffers against storm surges, an increasing threat in a changing global climate with rising sea levels.


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      4. The remains of mangrove trees. © Kyle Obermann

        There’s trouble in Myanmar.
        Mangroves are under threat nearly everywhere, but the problem is particularly acute in Myanmar, where the rate of deforestation is four times the global average.


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      5. Shrimp farms in Malaysia. © Keith A. Ellenbogen

        Shrimping is a jumbo problem.
        In Thailand, Mexico and Indonesia, mangroves are often cut down to make room for temporary shrimp pens. But once the pens have been removed, the accumulated biowaste renders the water too toxic for most forms of life.


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      6. A group of people work to replant a mangrove forest. © Nandini Narayanan

        It’s better to revitalize than replant.
        Mangroves’ dense root systems inhibit the flow of tidal water and encourage the deposition of nutrient-rich sediments. But once lost, mangroves are very difficult to replant due to shifts in the very sediments the roots helped keep in place.​​​


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        Conservation International is an active partner in the Global Mangrove Alliance, an organization of technical experts, policy makers and non-governmental organizations dedicated to promoting mangrove conservation and regrowth.

        The Alliance’s strategy aims to increase the extent of global mangrove habitats by 20% by 2030, an ambitious target that will pay dividends for climate change mitigation, biodiversity and the well-being of coastal communities around the world.

        In addition to its work with the Alliance, Conservation International works with local communities to protect and revitalize mangrove ecosystems in Indonesia, where logging, mining and commercial development place critical mangrove habitats at risk. As part of this effort, Conservation International has collaborated with policy makers in Indonesia’s West Papua province to establish firm conservation guidelines, including the placement of 30% of coastal waters in marine protected areas and the elimination of threats for 100% of the provinces mangrove habitats.

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