Peer-reviewed Journal Articles

The Moore Center for Science at Conservation International is one of the world’s premier conservation research institutes, producing and applying groundbreaking and policy-relevant research to help decision-makers protect nature. To date, Conservation International has published more than 1,100 peer-reviewed articles, many in leading journals including Science, Nature and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

On average, each of our scientific papers is cited more than 45 times by other scholars — a rate exceeding that of any other U.S. conservation organization as well as leading universities.

Here is an archive of our most recent research.

Treatment of Textile Wastewater Using Advanced Oxidation Processes — A Critical Review

Yiqing Zhang, Kashif Shaad, Derek Vollmer, Chi Ma

Water, 13(24)

December 09, 2021

Textile manufacturing is a multi-stage operation process that produces significant amounts of highly toxic wastewater. Given the size of the global textile market and its environmental impact, the development of effective, economical, and easy-to handle alternative treatment technologies for textile wastewater is of significant interest. Based on the analysis of peer-reviewed publications over the last two decades, this paper provides a comprehensive review of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) on textile wastewater treatment, including their performances, mechanisms, advantages, disadvantages, influencing factors, and electrical energy per order (EEO) requirements. Fenton-based AOPs show the lowest median EEO value of 0.98 kWh m−3 order−1, followed by photochemical (3.20 kWh m−3 order−1), ozonation (3.34 kWh m−3 order−1), electrochemical (29.5 kWh m−3 order−1), photocatalysis (91 kWh m−3 order−1), and ultrasound (971.45 kWh m−3 order−1). The Fenton process can treat textile effluent at the lowest possible cost due to the minimal energy input and low reagent cost, while Ultrasound-based AOPs show the lowest electrical efficiency due to the high energy consumption. Further, to explore the applicability of these methods, available results from a full-scale implementation of the enhanced Fenton technology at a textile mill wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) are discussed. The WWTP operates at an estimated cost of CNY ¥1.62 m−3 (USD $0.23 m−3) with effluent meeting the China Grade I-A pollutant discharge standard for municipal WWTPs, indicating that the enhanced Fenton technology is efficient and cost-effective in industrial treatment for textile effluent.

Read More


Zhang Y, Shaad K, Vollmer D, Ma C. Treatment of Textile Wastewater Using Advanced Oxidation Processes—A Critical Review. Water. 2021; 13(24):3515.