New platform provides global leaders with an important baseline to track changes in ocean policy and practices
Boston/New York/Washington, D.C. —
The National Geographic Society, the New England Aquarium and the Pacific Life
Foundation today unveiled the Ocean Health Index, the first comprehensive
measure of ocean health for 171 coastal regions worldwide.
The new index is a quantitative measure of ocean health that considers human
beings as part of the ocean's ecosystem. It assesses ocean health in terms of
the benefits from the ocean, organized as 10 goals that are enjoyed by people in
a sustainable way.
Findings from the Ocean Health Index, published today in the journal Nature,
revealed a global score of 60 out of 100. Scores farther from 100 mean that we
are either not maximizing the benefits from the oceans or we are not accessing
those benefits in a sustainable way.
|Global and U.S. scores for each of the
goals: ||Global ||U.S.|
|Artisanal Fishing Opportunities||87||97|
|Livelihoods and Economies||75||97|
|Tourism and Recreation||10||1|
|Sense of Place||55||82|
|Total average score:||60||63|
The Index provides an important tool to policy-makers for making decisions in
the future. Resource management decisions can be examined across the suite of
goals allowing policy-makers to assess trade-offs.
The Index is a framework that can be used at scales from global to very local
— wherever quality data exists.
"The Index is a tool to be actively used by policy-makers and business," said
Steve Katona, Managing Director of the Ocean Health Index. "The Ocean Health
Index website is unique because it is a portal to the Index; it's a direct route
to the methodology, goal scores and the components within those scores for every
country with a shoreline (i.e. Exclusive Economic Zones – EEZ's). Users can dig
down to the raw data behind every component. For this reason, the research and
website together are a breakthrough in taking science into action."
The Ocean Health Index also reveals:
Food Provision scored 24 out of 100, further reinforcing the need to improve
Mariculture, a subset of Food Provision, also received one of the lowest
scores (10 out of 100), revealing opportunities for countries to sustainably
raise seafood to help meet the demands of the growing population and provide
The highest-scoring locations included both densely populated and highly
developed nations such as Germany as well as uninhabited islands, such as Jarvis
Island in the Pacific.
West African countries scored the lowest on the Ocean Health Index. These
countries also rank low on the Human Development Index, suggesting a
relationship between good governance, strong economies and a healthy coastline.
Scientists from the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis,
the University of British Columbia's Sea Around Us, Conservation International,
the National Geographic Society and the New England Aquarium collaborated with
ocean experts from universities, non-profit organizations, and government
agencies to develop this landmark approach and digital platform. It has been
designed to raise awareness of ocean issues, guide policy priorities, and
facilitate a more inclusive and proactive approach to managing the oceans.
By re-envisioning ocean health as a portfolio of benefits, the Ocean Health
Index highlights the many different ways in which a coastal area can be healthy.
Just like a diversified stock portfolio can perform equally well in a variety of
market conditions, many different combinations of goals can lead to a high Index
score. Consistent with this idea, the Ocean Health Index highlights the many
options that exist for strategic actions to improve ocean health.
"We are very excited about the launch of the Ocean Health Index — the first
comprehensive measurement tool for the health of the oceans," said William
Wrigley, Jr., former Chairman and CEO of the William Wrigley Jr. Company and
Board member of Conservation International, Co-Chair of Marine Strategy and
Co-Founder of the Ocean Health Index. "The index is backed by pure science and
it is our intention to see that it is used to influence people who have the
ability to alter policy for the oceans to make the right choices for our future
before it is too late. We know what to do to save the oceans; we just need to
convince people to change their behaviors. We can indeed co-exist in a way that
benefits both humans and the oceans at the same time."
More than 40 percent of the world's population lives along the coast and as
the world's population grows from 7 billion to 9 billion by 2050, people are
growing more and more dependent on the ocean for their food, livelihoods,
recreation and sustenance. However, approximately 84 percent of monitored
marine stocks are now fully exploited, overexploited, or even depleted. The
capacity of the world's fishing fleets is estimated to be 2.5 times sustainable
"The global score of 60 is a strong message that we are not managing our use
of the oceans in an optimal way," said Bud Ris, president and CEO, the New
England Aquarium and co-author of the paper in Nature. "There is a lot of
opportunity for improvement, and we hope the Index will make that point
"For the first time, we have a comprehensive measurement of what's happening
in our oceans and a global platform from which to evaluate the implications of
human action or inaction," said Dr. Greg Stone, Executive Vice President and
Chief Scientist for Oceans with Conservation International and co-author of the
paper in Nature. "The Index provides a practical means to inform management
decisions by government and business leaders through a robust and quantitative
framework that uses the best available data for any particular place across
ecological, social, economic, and political conditions."
"The Ocean Health Index is like a thermometer of ocean health, which will
allow us to determine how the patient is doing," said National Geographic
Explorer-in-Residence Dr. Enric Sala. "The Index will be a measure of whether
our policies are working, or whether we need new solutions."
"We believe that effective management of our oceans is critically important
to help sustain the economies and people dependent on them," said James Morris,
chairman of the Pacific Life Foundation. "We are pleased to support the Ocean
Health Index in order to help shape a new direction for global policy on the
oceans." The Pacific Life Foundation has committed up to $5 million towards the
development and implementation of the Ocean Health Index.
The lead scientific partners of the Ocean Health Index are the University of
Santa Barbara's National Center for Ecological Synthesis and Analysis in
collaboration with the University of British Columbia's Sea Around Us. The
founding partners are Conservation International, New England Aquarium, and
National Geographic Society. The Founding Presenting Sponsor is the Pacific
Life Foundation. Darden Restaurants Foundation was a founding donor. The
founding grant was given by Beau and Heather Wrigley.
The authors readily acknowledge methodological challenges in calculating the
Index, but emphasize it represents a critical step forward. "We recognize the
Index is a bit audacious. With policy-makers and managers needing tools to
actually measure ocean health — and with no time to waste — we felt it was
audacious by necessity," said Dr. Ben Halpern, lead author and scientist on the
Ocean Health Index.
Additional materials for editors:
Learn more about ocean health and explore results of the Index:
Download all data and results used in the project visit:
Supplementary media materials are available for download:
Health Index Press Kit
Photos available for media use with correct credit information can be
downloaded at: https://ci.tandemvault.com/lightboxes/JXgqbQ3e1?tc
View Expert Interviews and Ocean health Index Videos:
Principal Spokespersons and Primary Authors
Union of Concerned Scientists (previously